A Look Back at Some of the Most Recognizable Spots in Malate and Ermita
Manila’s many prominent and most affluent families began settling in the neighboring districts of Malate and Ermita during the first decades of the 20th Century. The twin residential districts were strategically located facing the scenic bay, and, early on, were also centers of educational, commercial, and government activities. The exclusive “old rich” districts were known for their tree-lined avenues and opulent homes.
Malate was derived from the descriptive word “
World War II would bring untold devastation to lives and property in the two districts, but Ermita and Malate would rise again to become Manila’s major commercial, entertainment, and tourism enclaves beginning in the ‘70s.
Malate and Ermita were home to many of Manila’s wealthiest and upper-crust families—the Ynchaustis, the Zobels, the Guerreros, the Yangcos, the Perez-
The Home of Cong. Rafael Alunan (1936) at Calle Cortabitarte
Rafael R. Alunan,
The Home of Enrique P. Roxas-Brias (1933) at Calle Herran (now Pedro Gil Street)
The residence of the Roxas-
Villanueva-Kalaw House Rentals (ca.
The first 1908 Manila Carnival Queen, Pura Villanueva, settled in Malate with husband Teodoro Kalaw, and amassed a fortune in real estate, building homes in the family compound like this one, a concrete three-bedroom rental house facing Remedios and Florida Streets (now Maria Orosa Street), within walking distance of schools and government offices. Kalaw eventually moved their Paco family residence to San Andres.
Ermita Church (
The oldest Marian image in the Philippines is that of Nuestra Señora de Guia (Our Lady of Guidance). A Spanish soldier of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi found it atop a pandan bush while wading back to his boat. The 50 cm image was painted on with attire that looked a sarong, with hands in a prayer position that indicated her Asian origin. A chapel was built on the site where the icon was found. In 1953, a new and modern Ermita Church opened along Fray Antonio Flores Street, which is one of the most important Marian shrines in the city today.
Malate Church (1986) at Mabini Street
Along Mabini Street stands the church dedicated to Our Lady of the Holy Remedies. The church as we see it today was rebuilt after being destroyed by earthquakes and typhoons in 1864, led by Fr. Francisco Cuadrado. Subsequent restorations were carried out after the war, in 1950 (dome, main altar, and transept) and in 1978. The
Cathedral of St. Mary and St. John (ca.
The original Anglican Church was established in 1905 by Bishop Charles Henry Brent, from the then Protestant Episcopal Church of the U.S. Meant for Americans and Europeans living in Manila, the church, built through donations amounting to
Pope Pius XII Catholic Center (1970) at Calle Isaac Peral (now U.N. Avenue)
This multi-purpose Catholic center established in 1965 had men's and ladies’ dormitories, a gym, sports facilities, function rooms, and social halls for retreats, weddings and other events, and the St. Mary
Mabini Street (1976)
As early as the 1930s, Mabini Street was a tourist belt haven, dotted with souvenir shops like The Little Home Shop and Philippine Shell-Craft Corp. Artists started flocking to the area in the '50s when Filipiniana-themed paintings became bestsellers among tourists, painted by the likes of Ben Alano, Gabriel Custodio, Elias
Acme Shopping (1962) at Calle Padre Faura
Acme Supermarket was an American-style grocery that was put up in 1954 to answer the needs of consumers—Filipinos and Americans alike—for imported items like canned goods, chocolates, comic books, and bubble gum. Located on 135 P. Faura, Acme boasted free parking, quality goods, courteous service, and home delivery services. It even had a
Harrison Plaza (1976) at Harrison Road corner Vito Cruz
The opening of Harrison Plaza in 1976 made waves as it was among the first true modern malls in the country. The air-conditioned shopping complex was erected on what was once Harrison Park, which in turn was a former colonial burial ground.
At its peak, Harrison Plaza was a boon to residents of Malate and nearby Pasay, well-located along Harrison Road, and close to Roxas Boulevard, Manila Zoo, and Rizal Stadium. It had all the latest shops, a children’s amusement section, and a fountain area. The mall, however, fell into disuse and closed in early 1980, only to reopen in 1984. By then SM and Rustan’s had also settled into the complex and a hotel and a jai alai fronton sprouted on the mall grounds in the '90s. Again, Harrison Plaza fell into a state of stagnation, even as its environs became squalid, dirty, and unsafe. In 2016, SM Prime Holdings reportedly wanted to invest about P40 billion to revitalize the mall complex that had seen better days.
Rizal Hall, University of the Philippines (1955) at Calle Padre Faura Street
Rizal Hall was one of the original buildings of the University of the Philippines in Manila. It housed the College of Arts and Sciences. The structure is marked by its distinctive columns and Neoclassic architectural style. Heavily damaged by the war, Rizal Hall was restored to its pre-war condition at a cost of P750,000.
Malate Catholic School (1946) at Calle Carolina (now Madre Ignacia Street)
The Redemptorists are credited with setting up the parochial school of Malate in 1917, under director Fr. Terence Brown and principal Mother Alix, a Belgian nun. The school was converted into a hospital during the war and was managed by the American Red Cross as Remedios Hospital. The war-ravaged campus re-opened its Grade School in 1946. In 1957, the management of Malate Catholic School was turned over to the Columban sisters, until 1990 when the Congregation of the Religious of the Virgin Mary took over.
Convent of the Assumption (ca.
Before the Assumption College in San Lorenzo, Makati, there was the Convent of Assumption in Herran which was founded as a Normal School in 1892 by the Congregation of the Religious of the Assumption. It became a boarding school the following year until the Revolution forced its closure. In 1904, the Assumption sisters returned to re-establish the school, and by 1940, had elementary, high school, and college departments that found favor among Manila’s elite. The campus was totally destroyed in the battle of Manila in
St. Paul’s College (1946) at Calle Herran Street (now Pedro Gil Street)
The school that was planned to be a Manila novitiate of the Sisters of St. Paul de Chartres ended up becoming a kindergarten class known as St. Paul’s Institute in 1912. The high school and college departments opened in 1924 and 1940, respectively, and was renamed St. Paul’s College. The
Bureau of Science (1933) between Calle Padre Faura Street and Herran
The Bureau of Science was formerly known as the Bureau of Government Laboratories when the latter moved to Manila in 1905. It was a part of the scientific and modernization project instituted during American colonial times. The beautifully designed science building housed valuable natural history collections, including an impressive herbarium, a zoological collection of birds, insects, mammals, fishes, and reptiles from around the world, and an extensive library for scientific research and study. The Bureau of Science was totally destroyed and its collections permanently lost in 1945.
Philamlife Building (1961) at Calle Isaac Peral (now U.N. Avenue)
Located in Manila’s arts district, the Philippine American Insurance Co. building is a massive structure of symmetry, dominated by strong horizontal lines of aluminum and sun baffles. Florida Street (now Maria Orosa Street) features a canopied walk that has become one of the building’s signature features. The Philamlife Building was designed by Arch. Carlos Arguelles.
Caltex Philippines Inc. Building (1960) at Calle Padre Faura
Caltex became one of the leading multinational oil and fuel companies when it built the country’s first petroleum refinery in San Pascual, Batangas, which was inaugurated in 1954. In 1956, Caltex moved its main offices into its spanking new,
Luneta Hotel and University Building (ca.
The historic Luneta Hotel, built in 1919, was a fine example of the French Renaissance style of architecture. It acquired a reputation for its exceptional cuisine and unusually cool rooms. Nearby University Building, which was operated by Luneta Hotel, had 44 rooms with bath and electric refrigeration for transient guests and long-term residents. Both Luneta Hotel and the University Building were less than a block from Dewey Boulevard, and a block away from the Army & Navy and the Elk’s Club. Luneta Hotel survived the
Ambassador Apartments (1935) at M.H. del Pilar Street
Ambassador Apartments, along with the Dewey Arms Apartments, were pre-war serviced budget apartments managed by Kneedler Realty. It was built on American-owned property along M.H. del Pilar corner Pasaje Del Carmen. Dr. Harry Dohme Kneedler, who ran the realty business, also built the Bayview Hotel along Dewey Boulevard.
This story originally appeared on Spot.ph. Minor edits have been made by the Esquiremag.ph editors.